Ghar Saholan is located in West Azerbaijan Province, Iran, near to the village of Saholan that lies some 43 Kilometres east of the city of Mahabad. Situated in a small hill of limestone the cave has two entrances at an altitude of 1,780m. The cave has a total surveyed (mapped) passage length of 771.1m and a vertical range of 45.8m.
Geomorphological evidence within the cave would strongly suggest that it has been formed under phreatic conditions by still water and not by flowing water. Originally the cave would have been completely flooded. In the latter stages in its development the water levels have dropped to create airspace within the chambers and passages and further passage enlargement would have been stimulated by the gentle rising and falling of the water table and subsequent water level. Throughout the cave there are horizontal ledges of calcite deposits along the walls that are indicative of former (higher) water levels.