The citadel protected people from the aggression of enemies during the Safavid and Qajar eras. Made of brick and clay walls, it is the oldest structure in the city and dates back to Safavids. The castle offers a beautiful view of the city, specially the old town.
Birjand, located on the eastern side of Iran’s central desert, is the capital of Southern Khorasan province in Eastern Iran. The weather is harsh and dry, however, Birjand had the first water system in Iran, even before that of Tehran and other big cities.
Due the climate and being protected by mountain range and desert, Birjand’s culture and language have remained almost unaffected by time. The Birjandi dialect of Persian is considered one of the oldest spoken accent of the language in Iran.
It is said that the Shokatiyeh School in Birjand together with Darolfonoon in Tehran were the first modern public schools of higher education in Iran in the mid-19th century. Nicknamed as City of Pines and City of Culture, Birjand has amassed an abundance of institutions of higher education and become an important location for research and development.